William van Ruysbroeck
When-ever his accounts conflict with our present day perception of events historians will down-play its importance, but as with Carpinis report: Let us take them for what they are first, eye-witness accounts with various layers of editing during the passing of centuries.
Carpini's report explains in detail that his journey led him through Poland, Bohemia, Germany, Loadia (Latin empire of Byzantium) and Campania on his way back, leaving very little doubt as to where the court of the great Khan actually was. No further than Russia and certainly not North of China.
William van Ruysbroeck's mission leads him on his way to the court on pretty much the same journey, although on his way back he takes a more Southern route. From the court of Batu Khan to the court of the great Khan he relates how far it actually was, but details regarding the scenery are missing. It appears that William of Ruysbroeck's tale was updated at a later stage to create the impression that the great Khans were Far East Asians, whereas we know that Mong(us) was the same word as Magn(us) meaning 'great' and was no geographical indication at all.
Carpini wanted to assess the readyness of the Middle European Princes to break away from the great Khan of the Mongols and it appears from his tale that he didn't have any fear of Batu Khan becoming privy of this aspect of his mission. Quite to the contrary actually and Batu Khan gives Carpini his full support. Would that not indicate that Batu Khan's strategy and that of the papacy of the time was quite the same? And moreover if Carpini was acting as envoy of the Pope in assessing the readyness of Middle Eastern Princes, would he not report back to the Pope BEFORE advancing towards his final destiny to the court (and elections of the new) Khan?
But the one he is reporting to in this respect is none other than Batu Khan! Was Batu Khan perhaps not in reality still in the Balkans? And did he not there have his court so very much like the papacy of these days constantly moving from city to city in regions north of Italy? And was not Batu Khan at very good terms with the Franciscan order?
From Carpini's tale it becomes obvious that he was used as an envoy to be present at the elections of the next great Khan.
These though were the elections, which Batu Khan supposedly had used as an excuse to stop with his conquest of Europe!
Let us now return to Ruysbroeck's description of the culture of the great Khans..
1. Nowhere have they fixed dwelling-places, nor do they know where their next will be.
Nor did the papacy in these days until their stay in Avignon. Moreover the Vatican is shaped like a round tent and its colour is yellow, the colour of the Golden Horde.
2. When they have fixed their dwelling, the door turned to the south, they set up the couch of the master on the north side. The side for the women is always the east side, that is to say, on the left of the house of the master, he sitting on his couch his face turned to the south. The side for the men is the west side, that is, on the right. Men coming into the house would never hang up their bows on the side of the woman.
Western Churches are facing to the East (the land of the great Khan), but similarly has two rows of pews where in the Middle Ages men and women sat apart. Women on the left, Men on the right.
|women to the left|
As do the popes.
4. Then an attendant goes out of the dwelling with a cup and liquor, and sprinkles three times to the south and all corners of the earth.
Alas, the mongols used a white liquor, which they called cosmos, the West will use holy water.
5. As to their marriages, you must know that no one among them has a wife unless he buys her;
No different from the Renaissance popes. Moreover the Kossack army soldiers were not allowed to marry, but care solely for the interest of the Ordu. It is no co-incidence that the celibacy obligation arises after the Mongol conquest of Europe.
6. As to their justice you must know that when two men fight together no one dares interfere, even a father dare not aid a son ;
Until the 19th century no-one dared to interfere with a duel, as especially amongst the nobility this was a customary practise to settle disputes.
7. They make also pyramids to the rich, that is to say, little pointed structures.
This is peculiar indeed. But especially initiates in the West love this kind of burial.
8. They consider themselves the masters of the world and it seems to them that there is nothing that anyone has the right to refuse them: if he refuses to give, and after that has need of their service, they serve him badly.
This needs no further explanation. The claims of the papacy arise exactly around this time.
9. And they prostrated themselves, the forehead to the ground, according to the fashion of the Nestorians, and after that they touched all the images with their right hand, always kissing their hand after touching them; and after this they gave their right hands to all the bystanders in the church.
Interesting this admission that the Mongols were no pagans. Moreover compare with the catholic customs and the custom of modern popes to kiss the ground.
10. from Persia and other regions of the south, are brought to them silken and golden stuffs and cloth of cotton, which they wear in summer. . And they always make in winter at least two fur gowns, one with the fur against the body
Higher clergy's vestments are made of silk and the papal vestments include fur against the body.
11. When I saw the ordu of Baatu, I was astonished, for it seemed like a great city stretched out about his dwelling, with people scattered all about for three or four leagues. And as among the people of Israel, where each one knew in which quarter from the tabernacle he had to pitch his tents, so these know on which side of the ordu they must place themselves when they set down their dwellings. A court (curia) is orda in their language, and it means "middle," for it is always in the middle of the people, with the exception, however, that no one places himself right to the south, for in that direction the doors of the court open.
The pope's court is called curia.
12. We were first taken to a certain Saracen, who gave us no food.
Nestorians and Saracens were living at equal measure in Russia of that epoch. In fact they were the old orthodox form of Christianity.
13. I saw Baatu riding with all his horde (turba); and all the heads of families were riding with him.
In Roman Catholicism each family of importance has a cardinal as head of their family, who was part of the curia and accompanied the popes.
14. After traveling twelve days from the Etilia, we found a great river.
Here may very well lay the original source for the name Italy, which only arose after the unification of the former city republics. It is the original location of the family of the Jochid's (father of Batu Khan) above the Caspian Sea (also called lake of Tiberias or Holy Sea!). Their main city was Atle and from it derived their Atlantean society, which hence indeed was located behind the pillars of Hercules (at the time the Bosperus). Also the origin of the legend of the Argonauts and the Golden Fleece.
15. After that we entered the plain in which was the ordu of Keu Chan, and which used to be the country of the Naiman, who were the real subjects of that Prester John. When Keu Chan died, Baatu wanted Mangu to be Chan.
The Naimans were the Normans and it is revealing that William van Ruysbroeck associates these people living North West of where he claimed to be with Prester John, whom he subsquently claims to live in the far East beyond Siberia. But he is adamant Prester John was a brother of the recently died Khan. Hence Prester John allegedly was a Borjigid. In fact it becomes apparant the Baatu himself was none other than this prester John and William of Ruysbroeck appears to have the intention to do away with the legend once and for all (in the XVIs century editions that is).
16. Hence this shameful custom prevails among them, that sometimes a son takes to wife all his father's wives, except his own mother; for the ordu of the father and mother always belongs to the youngest son, so it is he who must provide for all his father's wives who come to him with the paternal household, and if he wishes it he uses them as wives, for he esteems not himself injured if they return to his father after death.
.. So this Keu being dead, Mangu was elected by the will of Baatu,
Mangu was the youngest son of Ghengis Khan. Baatu Khan corrects the choice of his grand father. And it is very interesting he didn't claim any rights himself as son of Jochi, eldest son of Ghengis Khan. Our historians then have some serious misunderstanding regarding the motives of Batu Khan to stop the conquest of Europe. Batu Khan stopped because he has established his rights as (religious and worldy) lord of the West. But he used the West in his plans against the brothers of Jochi (except the youngest!). And as some sort of Prester of John he still had the authority to lay down the choice of Mangu Khan as next great Khan. (and this all with the presence of a papal envoy at the elections!).
It is obvious that the split of the Roman Papacy, called reformation in our history books is of later date and resulted in a Roman Papacy asserting itself against much of the rest of the world and a Rosecrucian tradition of St. John (the baptist) referring to this same Prester John type, which may very well refer to Batu Khan himself. As covert grand master of the Rosecrucian Order this function continued until the present day.